Standing in a patch of damp forest, a clump of moss in a single hand, Siraj Hussein applies the final touches to a digital camera lure. He explains why his chosen tree is in a super spot: it’s in a clearing, which provides the sensors view, and lion droppings have been discovered close by. “To date, I haven’t captured a lion on my digital camera, however I’m optimistic,” he says.
Siraj is gathering knowledge on the behaviour of the lions in the Kafa biosphere reserve, in south-west Ethiopia – one of many nation’s previous few tracts of pure forest – as a part of a brand new venture by the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union (Nabu), a German environmental group.
Researchers consider there are about 25 lions on this space, however little is thought about them. It isn’t clear if they’re resident year-round or simply migrate by. One factor, nevertheless, is for certain: their numbers are declining. “Twenty years in the past, you’d at all times see lions mendacity within the highway,” says Asaye Alemayehu, who runs the Nabu venture. “Now that’s nearly extraordinary.”
Ethiopia’s lions are identified for his or her distinctive black manes. They occupy a outstanding place in nationwide tradition: their picture adorns the foreign money, whereas Haile Selassie, Ethiopia’s final emperor, referred to as himself the “lion of Judah”.
Nonetheless, like Ethiopia’s different wildlife, they’ve been pushed to the brink by many years of neglect and habitat destruction, a lot of it pushed by a quickly increasing human inhabitants – the second largest in Africa (after Nigeria) at greater than 120 million. Forest as soon as coated 40% of Ethiopia. Right this moment it covers solely about 15%, in keeping with the World Financial institution.
“It’s not simply the lions which are below strain, it’s biodiversity on the whole,” says Asaye.
There are about 1,100 lions clinging on in Ethiopia’s final remaining pockets of wilderness, in keeping with a examine revealed in 2021. They usually encounter farmers, whose livestock they prey on. Human-wildlife battle is the primary issue driving their decline, says Hans Bauer, a zoologist on the College of Oxford and a co-author of the examine.
Conservation is hamstrung by an absence of funding. Ethiopia was among the many first international locations in Africa to ascertain nationwide parks, however most are in a poor state, with out good roads or different infrastructure. Missing the autos and gasoline wanted for normal patrols, government-employed rangers battle to stop effectively armed herders from grazing their cattle in protected areas.
Bauer contrasts the precarious existence of Ethiopia’s lions to that of the thriving inhabitants in neighbouring Kenya, the place lions play a starring position within the profitable wildlife tourism sector and the place numbers grew from about 2,000 lions in 2010 to just about 2,500 in 2021. Recognising their financial worth, Kenya has invested closely in its nationwide parks.
In Kenya, “lions have area, they’re protected and dwell in excessive densities with ecological potential”, says Bauer. “That doesn’t exist in Ethiopia – there are people in all places and there aren’t any habitats which are totally protected or the place prey is current at excessive ranges.”
The Kafa biosphere is healthier managed than most of Ethiopia’s nationwide parks, largely because of backing from Nabu, which runs reforestation and different schemes. However even right here, the pure habitat is below risk. Farms rub up towards protected areas of forest and in recent times massive tracts have been cleared to make method for business tea and occasional plantations.
On a hillside in Kafa, a bunch of farmers complain that lions commonly take their livestock. Every cow can price a yr’s wage, however the authorities doesn’t compensate them. One man reveals scars on his again from a lion assault a number of years in the past. One other recollects how a lion as soon as broke down the door of his hut and grabbed a goat whereas he was sleeping inside.
Many farmers need the lions to be relocated away from their farms. “If there have been no lions, it will be higher,” says Busho Woldesaki, who has misplaced three cattle to lion assaults up to now two years. “Our animals can’t graze freely as a result of we concern the lions.”
It’s uncommon for individuals to kill lions in Kafa, the place they’re revered. In different components of Ethiopia, nevertheless, herders usually hunt lions down in retaliation for livestock assaults.
Fikirte Gebresenbet, a lion expert at the University of New Hampshire, highlights the need for more research before attacks such as these can be curbed. “Lions are under serious threat, but we don’t really have data on their distribution, and if you don’t have that baseline data, you can’t do any conservation work. We have to determine where we have viable populations, otherwise you are just throwing resources down the drain … In Kenya there are a lot of ecologists studying lions. They know them by name, by their whiskers. That’s the level of detail they are working with. In Ethiopia, we don’t have that.”
For now, Nabu’s project in Kafa is focused on building a clearer picture of the local lions. Siraj and other rangers gather information on lion sightings from farmers, but these days he sets up his camera traps in secret – he only has one left after two were stolen.
Despite talk from the government of developing tourism, Kenyan-style wildlife conservation “is not a serious option” in Ethiopia, says Bauer. “The pressures on the land are too high.” But other steps could be taken to minimise conflict with humans, such as restocking prey populations and providing compensation.
“There’s a whole toolbox of activities to draw upon, but first we need more research,” says Bauer.
Budget constraints mean the Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority (EWCA) prioritises endemic species such as the Ethiopian wolf and the walia ibex, says Fekede Regassa, its head of research. If these species were lost, it would mean extinction, whereas lions would persist elsewhere.
Fekede says more funding would make protecting Ethiopia’s lions possible, but “if things continue as they are, with deforestation and other human factors, we will lose the lions. No question.”