Amongst philosophers thinking about biodiversity, Santana is thought for advancing an eliminativist argument about biodiversity. Principally, Santana thinks that the idea of biodiversity is ineffective for prediction and rationalization in conservation science and, consequently, that we must always do away with it. I don’t assume Santana is correct about this, however he makes a helpful level that I’ll construct upon right here.
Santana’s advice is that conservation scientists swap out the biodiversity idea for one thing extra readily measurable, equivalent to what these scientists intention to protect (for instance, taxonomic richness or ecosystem companies). Santana calls these “organic values,” which makes specific the normative issues embedded in conservation science. Now, take an ecosystem service that may be quantified, corresponding to the worth of pollinators in a sure space of the world. To speak a few “disaster” in that little bit of nature, you don’t want to check your worth to some deep-past measurement. You may set a threshold primarily based on different issues and, when that threshold is breached, you might be justified in taking motion. This might work for different organic values, too, like species richness in a biodiversity hotspot or tree density within the Amazon. Anyway, it offers a principled means of speaking in regards to the current disaster that doesn’t hinge on problematic comparisons between the current and the previous.
So, to sum up: I’ve argued that justifying the declare that we’re in a biodiversity disaster by evaluating measures of the present standing of biodiversity to paleodiversity is problematic as a result of the 2 measurements are incommensurable: they use knowledge that’s not simply in contrast and so they conceptualize the focal phenomenon otherwise. But when we exchange discuss of “biodiversity” with “organic values,” we are able to motive in regards to the severity of the current disaster with out downplaying its significance, and with out counting on inferences primarily based on problematic comparisons.*
[* You might still have questions about another narrative that captures the taxonomic loss are experiencing today, that of the “sixth mass extinction.” We often hear that the world has entered a sixth mass extinction that is comparable to the “Big Five” identified by Raup and Sepkoski. If you are interested in how a mass extinction is defined and how hard it is to comparatively measure today’s rates of species loss, I recommend that you check out my co-authored paper “Are we in a sixth mass extinction? The challenges of answering and the value of asking,” which is forthcoming in The British Journal for Philosophy of Science!]
Philosophers on Paleodiversity
Bokulich, A. 2021. Utilizing fashions to appropriate knowledge: paleodiversity and the fossil report. Synthese 198:5919–5940.
Bocchi, F. 2022. Biodiversity vs. paleodiversity measurements: the incommensurability downside. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12, 64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13194-022-00494-6.
Bocchi, F., Bokulich, A., Castillo Brache, L., Grand-Pierre, G., Watkins, A. 2022. Are we in a sixth mass extinction? the challenges of answering and worth of asking. The British Journal for Philosophy of Science. [Preprint: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/20953/]
some paleocurve classics
Alroy, J., Aberhan, M., Bottjer, D.J., Foote, M., Fürsich, F.T., Harries, P.J., […] Visaggi, C.C. 2008. Phanerozoic tendencies within the world range of marine invertebrates. Science 321:97–100.
Fan, J.X., Shen, S Z., et al. 2020. A high-resolution abstract of Cambrian to Early Triassic marine invertebrate biodiversity. Science 367:272–277.
Raup, D. M., & Sepkoski Jr, J.J. 1982. Mass extinctions within the marine fossil report. Science 215:1501-1503.
Sepkoski, Jr., J.J. 1997. Biodiversity: previous, current, and future. Journal of Paleontology 71:533–539.
philosophers (and a scientist) on biodiversity
Religion, D.P. 1992. Conservation analysis and phylogenetic range. Organic conservation 61:1–10.
Maclaurin, J., Sterelny, Okay. 2008. What’s Biodiversity? Chicago: College of Chicago Press.
Santana, C. 2014. Save the planet: remove biodiversity. Biology & Philosophy 29:761–780.
Santana, C. 2018. Biodiversity is a chimera, and chimeras aren’t actual. Biology & Philosophy 33:1–15.
And right here is the SEP article on “Biodiversity,” written by Daniel Religion
Barnosky, A.D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G.O.U., Swartz, B., Quental, T.B., … Ferrer, E. A. 2011. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471:51–57
Chao, A., Jost. L. 2012. Protection-based rarefaction and extrapolation: standardizing samples by completeness quite than measurement. Ecology 93″:2533–2547.
Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Technique of Pure Choice, or the Preservation of Favoured Races within the Battle for Life. London: John Murray.
Edwards, P. N. 2010. A Huge Machine: Pc Fashions, Local weather Information, and the Politics of International Warming. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Phillips, J. 1860. Life on Earth: Its Origin and Succession. Cambridge: Macmillan & Co.