Rudwick made a lot of comparable research earlier than leaving paleontology for a full-time gig as a historian of science. However his scientific pursuits weren’t restricted to the demonstration of adaptation in fossils. He was additionally within the evolution of brachiopods as a complete, together with the repeated evolution of constructions like zigzag deflections throughout the brachiopod tree. Rudwick described his “long-term analysis plan” (retrospectively) as an try “to interpret the morphological options of fossil brachiopods of any and each geological interval by way of their probably capabilities and diversifications, and therefore in the end to reinterpret the large-scale phylogeny of brachiopods by way of the evolutionary historical past of the animals’ modes of life” (Rudwick 2017, 148). The outcomes are summarized in a 1970 e-book, Residing and Fossil Brachiopods, based mostly partly on analysis carried out along with his scholar Richard Cowen.
This train is mainly what Gould had in thoughts when he spoke in regards to the want for evolutionary paleontologists to “specify organic duties, outline the constructions that match them greatest and monitor the evolutionary modifications that lead, normally in unbiased lineages, to new grades or purposeful… zones” (Gould 1970, 111). I used to be unaware of the extent to which Rudwick had anticipated (and possibly impressed) Gould’s imaginative and prescient for “longitudinal paradigm evaluation” once I first wrote on this matter again in 2017. Consequently I in all probability overstated Gould’s originality. What Gould delivered to the desk was not the concept of making use of paradigm evaluation longitudinally, however relatively his emphasis on mechanical enchancment as the principle vector of historical past in main taxa. This mirrored his Huxleyan inheritance in addition to his ambition to discover a unifying theme for evolutionary paleontology. Anyway, it was an addition to what he present in Rudwick.
Dresow, M. 2017. Earlier than hierarchy: the rise and fall of Stephen Jay Gould’s first macroevolutionary synthesis. Historical past and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39:1–30. [This was my first paper, and boy does it show. I am grateful for the opportunity to basically rewrite it here]
Dresow, M. 2019. Gould’s legal guidelines: a second perspective. Biology & Philosophy, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10539-019-9698-7.
Eldredge, N. and Gould, S.J. 1972. Punctuated equilibria: a substitute for phyletic gradualism. In T.J.M. Schopf (Ed.), Fashions in Paleobiology, pp. 82–115. San Francisco: Cooper & Co.
Gould, S.J. 1966. Allometry and measurement in ontogeny and phylogeny. Organic Evaluations 41:587–640.
Gould, S.J. 1967. Evolutionary patterns in Pelycosaurian reptiles: a factor-analytic examine. Evolution 21:385–401.
Gould, S.J. 1968. Ontogeny and the reason of kind: an allometric evaluation. Memoir (The Paleontological Society), Vol. 2, Complement to Quantity 42 of the Journal of Paleontology, pp. 81–91.
Gould, S.J. 1970. Evolutionary paleontology and the science of kind. Earth-Science Evaluations 6:77–119.
Gould, S.J. 1976. Grades and clades revisited. In R.B. Masterton, W. Hodos and H. Jerison (Eds.), Evolution, Mind, and Behaviour, pp. 115–122. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gould, S.J. 2002. The Construction of Evolutionary Concept. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Huxley, J. 1932. Issues of Relative Progress. New York: The Dial Press.
Rudwick, M.J.S. 1964. The inference of perform from construction in fossils. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 7:27–40.
Rudwick, M.J.S. 2017. Useful morphology in paleobiology: origins of the strategy of “paradigms.” Journal of the Historical past of Biology 50:1–44.
Rudwick, M.J.S. 2018. The destiny of the strategy of “paradigms” in paleobiology. Journal of the Historical past of Biology 51:479–533.
Sepkoski, D. 2012. Rereading the Fossil Document: The Progress of Paleobiology as an Evolutionary Self-discipline. Chicago: College of Chicago Press.